OPV (organic photovoltaic) technology is a 3rd generation solar technology that is rapidly emerging to compete with silicon based 1st and 2nd generation solar technologies.
An organic photovoltaic cell (OPVC) is a photovoltaic cell that uses organic electronics–a branch of electronics that deals with conductive organic polymers or small organic molecules for light absorption and charge transport.
The plastic itself has low production costs in high volumes. Combined with the flexibility of organic molecules, this makes it potentially lucrative for photovoltaic applications. Molecular engineering like changing the length and functional group of polymers can change the energy gap, which allows chemical change in these materials. The optical absorption coefficient of organic molecules is high, so a large amount of light can be absorbed with a small amount of materials. The main disadvantages associated with organic photovoltaic cells are low efficiency, low stability and low strength compared to inorganic photovoltaic cells.
Types of junctions for OPVC
Single layer organic photovoltaic cell
Single layer organic photovoltaic cells are the simplest form among various organic photovoltaic cells. These cells are made by sandwiching a layer of organic electronic materials between two metallic conductors, typically a layer of indium tin oxide (ITO) with high work function and a layer of low work function metal such as Al, Mg and Ca.
Bilayer organic photovoltaic cells
This type of organic photovoltaic cell contains two different layers in between the conductive electrodes (Fig 3). These two layers of materials have differences in electron affinity and ionization energy, therefore electrostatic forces are generated at the interface between the two layers. The materials are chosen properly to make the differences large enough, so these local electric fields are strong, which may break up the excitons much more efficiently than the single layer photovoltaic cells do. The layer with higher electron affinity and ionization potential is the electron acceptor, and the other layer is the electron donor. This structure is also called planar donor-acceptor heterojunctions.
Dispersed heterojunction photovoltaic cells
In this type of photovoltaic cell, the electron donor and acceptor are mixed together, forming a polymer blend (Fig 4). If the length scale of the blend is similar with the exciton diffusion length, most of the excitons generated in either material may reach the interface, where excitons break efficiently. Electrons move to the acceptor domains then were carried through the device and collected by one electrode, and holes were pulled in the opposite direction and collected at the other side.
Current challenges and recent progress
Difficulties associated with organic photovoltaic cells include their low quantum efficiency (~3%) in comparison with inorganic photovoltaic devices; due largely to the large band gap of organic materials. Instabilities against oxidation and reduction, recrystallization and temperature variations can also lead to device degradation and decreased performance over time. This occurs to different extents for devices with different compositions, and is an area into which active research is taking place.
Other important factors include the exciton diffusion length; charge separation and charge collection; and charge transport and mobility, which are affected by the presence of impurities.
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